Savonarola (1452-1498) saw it as his highest priority to substantiate Christianitys claim to truth, an aspect that has hitherto found scant attention. Although in his youth he had himself been tempted to exchange Catholic Christianity for a neo-Epicurean view of the world, he spent his whole life seeking arguments for the truth of the faith. Following from Aristotelian empiricism and the lines of scientific enquiry, he attempts at an inductive proof for the truth of Christianity with the argument that the observation of Christians ethical conduct and the causal analysis of these perceptual data allows one to conclude that the faith motivating such behaviour is true. Habilitationsschrift. Der Autor ist Privatdozent für Kirchengeschichte an der Evangelisch-theologischen Fakultät der Universität Tübingen und Verfasser mehrerer Veröffentlichungen zur neuzeitlichen Theologiegeschichte.
This book clarifies the interrelationship between optics, vision and perspective before the Classical Age, examining binocularity in particular. The author shows how binocular vision was one of the key juncture points between the three concepts and readers will see how important it is to understand the approach that scholars once took. In the Middle Ages and the Renaissance, the concept of Perspectiva - the Latin word for optics - encompassed many areas of enquiry that had been viewed since antiquity as interconnected, but which afterwards were separated: optics was incorporated into the field of physics (i.e., physical and geometrical optics), vision came to be regarded as the sum of various psycho-physiological mechanisms involved in the way the eye operates (i.e., physiological optics and psychology of vision) and the word perspective was reserved for the mathematical representation of the external world (i.e., linear perspective). The author shows how this division, which emerged as a result of the spread of the sciences in classical Europe, turns out to be an anachronism if we confront certain facts from the immediately preceding periods. It is essential to take into account the way medieval scholars posed the problem - which included all facets of the Latin word perspectiva - when exploring the events of this period. This book will appeal to a broad readership, from philosophers and historians of science, to those working in geometry, optics, ophthalmology and architecture. Dominique Raynaud is a science historian at the Université of Grenoble Alpes, France. He has published various articles and books in the field, among them are Optics and the Rise of Perspective. A Study in Network Knowledge Diffusion (Oxford, 2014) and Scientific Controversies. A Socio-historical Perspective on the Advancement of Science (New Brunswick, 2015).
This book argues that we can only understand transformations of nature studies in the Scientific Revolution if we take seriously the interaction between practitioners (those who know by doing) and scholars (those who know by thinking). These are not in opposition, however. Theory and practice are end points on a continuum, with some participants interested only in the practical, others only in the theoretical, and most in the murky intellectual and material world in between. It is this borderland where influence, appropriation, and collaboration have the potential to lead to new methods, new subjects of enquiry, and new social structures of natural philosophy and science. The case for connection between theory and practice can be most persuasively drawn in the area of mathematics, which is the focus of this book. Practical mathematics was a growing field in early modern Europe and these essays are organised into three parts which contribute to the debate about the role of mathematical practice in the Scientific Revolution. First, they demonstrate the variability of the identity of practical mathematicians, and of the practices involved in their activities in early modern Europe. Second, readers are invited to consider what practical mathematics looked like and that although practical mathematical knowledge was transmitted and circulated in a wide variety of ways, participants were able to recognize them all as practical mathematics. Third, the authors show how differences and nuances in practical mathematics typically depended on the different contexts in which it was practiced: social, cultural, political, and economic particularities matter. Historians of science, especially those interested in the Scientific Revolution period and the history of mathematics will find this book and its ground-breaking approach of particular interest. Lesley B. Cormack is a historian of science and now Dean of Arts at the University of Alberta. She is the author of Charting an Empire: Geography at the English Universities 1580-1620 (Chicago, 1997), A History of Science in Society: From Philosophy to Utility with Andrew Ede (Broadview Press,2004, 3rd Edition University of Toronto Press, 2017) and editor of Making Contact: Maps, Identity, and Travel (University of Alberta Press, 2003) and A History of Science in Society: A Reader (Broadview Press, 2007) . She is now completing a book on the development and use of the Molyneux Globes in sixteenth century England. Steven A. Walton teaches history of science and technology, European history, and military history at Michigan Technological University, where is also actively involved with the graduate program in Industrial Archaeology. His primary scholarly writing is on the intersections between science, technology and the military, particularly in the early modern and antebellum American world. He has just published the travel diaries of Thomas Kelah Wharton, a nineteenth-century architect and artist, an article on U.S. Civil War artillery, and is working on a book on Transitions in Defense , on changed in fortification practice and rationale in sixteenth-century England. He has edited works on Fifty Years of Medieval Technology & Social Change (Ashgate, 2017); Wind & Water in the Middle Ages: Fluid Technologies from Antiquity to the Renaissance (ACMRS, 2006); and Instrumental in War: Science, Research, and Instruments Between Knowledge and the World (Brill, 2005). John A. Schuster is Honorary Research Fellow in the Unit for History and Philosophy of Science and Sydney Centre for the Foundations of Science, University of Sydney; and Honorary Fellow, Campion College, Sydney, the only private liberal arts college in Australia. He previously taught at Princeton, Leeds, Cambridge and the University of New South Wales. He is a Fellow of the Australian Academy of the Humanities. He has published on the historiography of the Scientific Revolution; the nature and dynamics of the field of early modern natural philosophy; Descartes natural philosophical and mathematical career; the problem of the origin of experimental sciences in the 17 th and 18 th centuries; and the political and rhetorical roles of scientific method. Recent publications include Descartes-agonistes: Physico-Mathematics, Method and Corpuscular-Mechanism-1618-33 (Springer, 2013) and Cartesian Physics in The Oxford Handbook of the History of Physics (2013): 56-95