This edition of Prolegomena includes Kants letter of February, 1772 to Marcus Herz, a momentous document in which Kant relates the progress of his thinking and announces that he is now ready to present a critique of pure reason.
How did the relations between philosophy and science evolve during the 17th and the 18th century? This book analyzes this issue by considering the history of Cartesianism in Dutch universities, as well as its legacy in the 18th century. It takes into account the ways in which the disciplines of logic and metaphysics became functional to the justification and reflection on the conceptual premises and the methods of natural philosophy, changing their traditional roles as art of reasoning and as science of being. This transformation took place as a result of two factors. First, logic and metaphysics (which included rational theology) were used to grant the status of indubitable knowledge of natural philosophy. Second, the debates internal to Cartesianism, as well as the emergence of alternative philosophical world-views (such as those of Hobbes, Spinoza, the experimental science and Newtonianism) progressively deprived such disciplines of their foundational function, and they started to become forms of reflection over given scientific practices, either Cartesian, experimental, or Newtonian.
This book contains the first English translation of Abul-Walid Ibn Rushd´s (Averroes´) so-called Epitome of Aristotle´s Metaphysics . The original Arabic text was composed around 1160 as a sort of appendix to a series of compendia of Aristotle´s works on natural philosophy by the famous Andalusian philosopher. The two most interesting things about this work are the fact that Averroes restructures here the Aristotelian text according to his own conception of metaphysics, as opposed to his great literal commentary which follows the order of the Metaphysics section by section, and that he constantly revised this work over more than three decades. The present translation is based on a wide range of documents including, apart from the available Arabic editions, a number of medieval Arabic manuscripts not taken into consideration in these editions as well as the Renaissance translation into Latin prepared by Jacob Mantinus. It is accompanied by a commentary dealing with the major philosophical topics, Averroes´ sources and problems of the transmission and constitution of the text. In addition, the most important variant readings of the manuscripts are noted in footnotes underneath the translation.
Aristotle´s Metaphysics was the first major study of the subject of metaphysics - in other words, an inquiry into ´first philosophy´, or ´wisdom´. It differs from Physics, which is concerned with the natural world: things which are subject to the laws of nature, things that move and change, are measurable. In Metaphysics, the study falls on ´being qua being´ - being insofar as it is being; the causes and principles of being, the causes and principles of substances. Aristotle asks, what is existence? How can things continue to exist yet change, and how can we best understand the world we live in? The work as it has come down to us is a compilation of Aristotle´s writing on the subject made in Alexandria in the first century CE, and it proved enormously influential from the Greeks onward, through the medieval and Renaissance periods. In Metaphysics, Aristotle absorbed Plato´s view that nature is eternal and unchangeable while accepting that we live in a world that appears full of change. A challenging work, Metaphysics is divided into 14 books. It begins with the causes of things and questions the existence of God, the understanding of ´being´ and the concept of ´substance´. It proceeds to consider ´actuality´, ´potentiality´ and ´unity´. This first recording, using the clear translation by W. D. Ross, is presented in a measured and comprehensible manner by James Cameron Stewart. 1. Language: English. Narrator: James Cameron Stewart. Audio sample: http://samples.audible.de/bk/dhrm/000058/bk_dhrm_000058_sample.mp3. Digital audiobook in aax.
Marsilio Ficino, the Florentine scholar-philosopher-magus, was largely responsible for the Renaissance revival of Plato. His commentaries remained the standard guide to the philosopher´s works for centuries. Vanhaelen´s new translation of Parmenides makes this monument of metaphysics accessible to the modern student.
It would be hard to overstate the influence that St. Thomas Aquinas (1225-1274) has had on both the Catholic world and the West as a whole over the last 750 years. Even in secular circles, Aquinas is known as one of the most important medieval philosophers, and in many respects a harbinger of the Renaissance that began to flourish across Europe in the centuries that followed his life. His groundbreaking work, Summa Theologica, remains one of the most influential philosophical texts in history, earning him a place in the pantheon alongside Plato, Aristotle, and Socrates. Aquinas had just as great an influence on Christianity as well. His philosophical works forged and established natural theology, squaring Catholicism with reason and logic, the ideals and aspects of modern thought that really took hold during the Renaissance. With his work on logic, theology, and metaphysics, as one of the Church´s Doctors, Thomas Aquinas remains the Catholic Church´s greatest theologian and philosopher, and he is still held out by the Church as the role model for those studying to become a Catholic priest. Catholic Legends: The Life and Legacy of St. Thomas Aquinas details the remarkable life he lived and analyzes his writings, explaining how strong and enduring his legacy has become. 1. Language: English. Narrator: Charles Craig. Audio sample: http://samples.audible.de/bk/acx0/035984/bk_acx0_035984_sample.mp3. Digital audiobook in aax.
This textbook includes important texts by Hartmann, some of them virtually inaccessible before, with a concise introduction to the central themes in Hartmannâ??s thought. There has been a recent renaissance of interest in his â??new ontologyâ?both as systematic theory and in philosophical anthropology. This text serves as an ideal introduction to Hartmann and as a supplement in courses on metaphysics, anthropology, and 20th century philosophy. Das Studienbuch macht wichtige Texte Hartmanns verfügbar, die bisher teilweise nur schwer zugänglich sind. Es bietet eine kompakte Einführung in zentrale Themenkreise von Hartmanns Denken. Gegenwärtig zeichnet sich eine Renaissance seiner ´´Neuen Ontologie´´ sowohl in systematischer Hinsicht als auch insbesondere in der philosophischen Anthropologie ab. Das Textbuch ist daher der ideale Reader zur Einführung und zur Begleitung in Kursen zur Metaphysik, Anthropologie und zur Philosophie des 20. Jahrhunderts.
´´We do not ask for what useful purpose the birds do sing, for song is their pleasure since they were created for singing. Similarly, we ought not to ask why the human mind troubles to fathom the secrets of the heavens. The diversity of the phenomena of nature is so great and the treasures hidden in the heavens so rich precisely in order that the human mind shall never be lacking in fresh nourishment.´´ - Johannes Kepler Just trying to define a man who had the qualities of a mathematician, astronomer, philosopher, inventor, and astrologer can prove difficult. But all of that can be ascribed to Johannes Kepler, one of the giants of his era who ushered in the Scientific Revolution and is often considered the first modern scientist. Kepler stood at a moment in time when the intellectual worldview of most in northern Europe was medieval in nature, influenced mostly by spirituality, mysticism, religion, and metaphysics. Kepler, however, was far-thinking in his outlook, taking advantages of the latest technological ideas from the Renaissance and the new translations of Greco-Roman philosophers from out of the Spanish kingdoms and the former-Byzantine Empire. Kepler himself struggled with the seemingly incongruous division between metaphysics and empiricism. By practicing empiricism and coming up with his famous laws of planetary motion, he was forced to defend his positions against a number of important ideas in western philosophy and the contemporary understanding of nature and the cosmos. All the while, Kepler was never able to escape the medieval mind he possessed, and he looked for God in the designs of the cosmos, thus attempting to wed the supernatural to the physical. 1. Language: English. Narrator: Stephen Paul Aulridge Jr. Audio sample: http://samples.audible.de/bk/acx0/036051/bk_acx0_036051_sample.mp3. Digital audiobook in aax.
In both ancient tradition and modern research Pythagoreanism has been understood as a religious sect or as a philosophical and scientific community. Numerous attempts have been made to reconcile these pictures as well as to analyze them separately. The most recent scholarship compartmentalizes different facets of Pythagorean knowledge, but this offers no context for exploring their origins, development, and interdependence. This collection aims to reverse this trend, addressing connections between the different fields of Pythagorean knowledge, such as eschatology, metempsychosis, metaphysics, epistemology, arithmology and numerology, music, dietetics and medicine as well as politics. In particular, the contributions discuss how the Pythagorean way of life related to more doctrinal aspects of knowledge, such as Pythagorean religion and science. The volume explores the effects of this interdependence between different kinds of knowledge both within the Pythagorean corpus and in its later reception. Chapters cover historical periods from the Archaic Period (6th century BC) to Neoplatonism, Early Christianity, the European and Arabic Middle Ages, and the Renaissance through to the Early Modern Period (17th century AD). Contributions by E. Afonasin, L. Arcari, D. Baltzly, A. Barker, H. Bartos, A. Bernabé, J. Bremmer, L. Brisson, F. Casadesús, M. Catarzi, S. Chrysakopoulou, G. Cornelli, E. Cottrell, S. Galson, M. Giangiulio, T. Iremadze, A. Izdebska, C. L. Joost-Gaugier, S. Kouloumentas, B. La Sala, R. McKirahan, C. Montepaone, H.-P. Neumann, A. Palmer, A. Provenza, I. Ramelli, D. Robichaud, B. Roling, W. Schmidt-Biggemann, E. Spinelli, I. F. Viltanioti, and L. Zhmud.
Aristotle was a Greek philosopher and scientist born in the city of Stagira, Chalkidice, on the northern periphery of Classical Greece. His father, Nicomachus, died when Aristotle was a child, whereafter Proxenus of Atarneus became his guardian. At 17 or 18 years of age, he joined Plato´s Academy in Athens and remained there until the age of 37 (c. 347 BC). His writings cover many subjects - including physics, biology, zoology, metaphysics, logic, ethics, aesthetics, poetry, theater, music, rhetoric, linguistics, politics, and government - and constitute the first comprehensive system of Western philosophy. Shortly after Plato died, Aristotle left Athens and, at the request of Philip of Macedon, tutored Alexander the Great beginning in 343 BC. Teaching Alexander the Great gave Aristotle many opportunities and an abundance of supplies. He established a library in the Lyceum which aided in the production of many of his hundreds of books. The fact that Aristotle was a pupil of Plato contributed to his former views of Platonism, but, following Plato´s death, Aristotle immersed himself in empirical studies and shifted from Platonism to empiricism. He believed all peoples´ concepts and all of their knowledge was ultimately based on perception. Aristotle´s views on natural sciences represent the groundwork underlying many of his works. Aristotle´s views on physical science profoundly shaped medieval scholarship. Their influence extended from Late Antiquity and the Early Middle Ages into the Renaissance, and were not replaced systematically until the Enlightenment and theories such as classical mechanics. 1. Language: English. Narrator: Fernando Castillo. Audio sample: http://samples.audible.de/bk/acx0/082671/bk_acx0_082671_sample.mp3. Digital audiobook in aax.