Mit Lockes berühmtem Essay beginnt die eigentliche Philosophie der Aufklärung: Das von ihm geforderte Prinzip der Gewaltenteilung zwischen gesetzgebender und gesetzausführender Instanz wurde später durch die Forderung Monetesquieus nach einer unabhängigen Justiz ergänzt. Seine Vertragstheorie und seine Kritik am Absolutismus wurden von Rousseau, Kant und den Vätern der amerikanischen Verfassung übernommen. Die These, dass der Bürger gegenüber dem Staat unverlierbare Grundrechte hat, machte das Buch zu einer der philosophischen Gründungsurkunden des Liberalismus.
A Performer´s Guide to Renaissance Music, Second Edition:Indiana University Press. Second Edition
Niccolò Machiavelli´s brutally uncompromising manual of statecraft, The Prince is translated and edited with an introduction by Tim Parks in Penguin Classics. As a diplomat in turbulent fifteenth-century Florence, Niccolò Machiavelli knew how quickly political fortunes could rise and fall. The Prince, his tough-minded, pragmatic handbook on how power really works, made his name notorious and has remained controversial ever since. How can a leader be strong and decisive, yet still inspire loyalty in his followers? When is it necessary to break the rules? Is it better to be feared than loved? Examining regimes and their rulers the world over and throughout history, from Roman Emperors to renaissance Popes, from Hannibal to Cesare di Borgia, Machievalli answers all these questions in a work of realpolitik that still has shrewd political lessons for today. Tim Parks´s acclaimed contemporary translation renders Machiavelli´s no-nonsense original as alarming and enlightening as when it was first written. His introduction discusses Machiavelli´s life and reputation, and explores the historical background to the work. Niccolò Machiavelli (1469-1527) was born in Florence, and served the Florentine republic as a secretary and second chancellor, as ambassador and foreign policy-maker. When the Medici family returned to power in 1512 he was suspected of conspiracy, imprisoned and tortured and forced to retire from public life. His most famous work, The Prince, was written in an attempt to gain favour with the Medicis and return to politics. If you enjoyed The Prince , you might like Plato´s Republic , also available in Penguin Classics. ´A gripping work, and a gripping translation´ Nicholas Lezard, Guardian ´Tim Parks´s swift and supple new translation brings out all its chilling modernity´ Boyd Tonkin, Independent
In Either/Or, using the voices of two characters-the aesthetic young man of part one, called simply ´´A,´´ and the ethical Judge Vilhelm of the second section-Kierkegaard reflects upon the search for a meaningful existence, contemplating subjects as diverse as Mozart, drama, boredom, and, in the famous Seducer´s Diary, the cynical seduction and ultimate rejection of a young, beautiful woman. A masterpiece of duality, Either/Or is a brilliant exploration of the conflict between the aesthetic and the ethical - both meditating ironically and seductively upon Epicurean pleasures, and eloquently expounding the noble virtues of a morally upstanding life. For more than seventy years, Penguin has been the leading publisher of classic literature in the English-speaking world. With more than 1,700 titles, Penguin Classics represents a global bookshelf of the best works throughout history and across genres and disciplines. Readers trust the series to provide authoritative texts enhanced by introductions and notes by distinguished scholars and contemporary authors, as well as up-to-date translations by award-winning translators.
This volume includes a step-by-step textual commentary on Jean-Jacques Rousseau?s first and second critical discourses on civilization. Rousseau?s thesis is that man has become progressively alienated from his own nature and thus perverted by technological and scientific progress. The example of Rousseau shows that critical reflection on modern civilization had already begun during the Enlightenment. Schlagartig berühmt geworden ist Jean-Jacques Rousseau (1712-1778) mit seinem Diskurs über die Wissenschaften und Künste (1750), in dem er das Grundübel der modernen Zivilisation damit begründet, dass sich der Mensch immer mehr von der Natur entfernt. Zwar propagiert er kein ´´Zurück zur Natur´´, wie ihm häufig nachgesagt wird, wohl aber einen Zustand auf mittlerem zivilisatorischem Niveau. Dabei geht es ihm nicht nur um das Verhältnis des Menschen zu seiner natürlichen Umwelt, sondern vor allem auch um die Entfremdung von der eigenen Natur. Im zweiten Diskurs über den Ursprung und die Grundlagen der Ungleichheit unter den Menschen (1755) versucht Rousseau, seine Behauptung mit Hilfe einer geschichtsphilosophischen Darstellung zu vertiefen. Hier macht er nicht nur die wissenschaftlich-technischen Fortschritte für den Sittenverfall verantwortlich. Die tiefere Ursache dafür sieht er vielmehr in der Entstehung des Privateigentums und der daraus resultierenden Pervertierung des Menschen. Im Gegensatz zur vorherrschenden Geschichtsphilosophie seiner Zeit deutet Rousseau den Fortschritt in einen Verfallsprozess um. Das Beispiel dieses Autors zeigt, dass bereits während der Epoche der Aufklärung die kritische Reflexion über die Moderne beginnt. Der Band erschließt Rousseaus Diskurse zur Zivilisationskritik auf aktuellem Forschungsstand für Studierende, Forscher und ein breites akademisches Publikum.
How did the relations between philosophy and science evolve during the 17th and the 18th century? This book analyzes this issue by considering the history of Cartesianism in Dutch universities, as well as its legacy in the 18th century. It takes into account the ways in which the disciplines of logic and metaphysics became functional to the justification and reflection on the conceptual premises and the methods of natural philosophy, changing their traditional roles as art of reasoning and as science of being. This transformation took place as a result of two factors. First, logic and metaphysics (which included rational theology) were used to grant the status of indubitable knowledge of natural philosophy. Second, the debates internal to Cartesianism, as well as the emergence of alternative philosophical world-views (such as those of Hobbes, Spinoza, the experimental science and Newtonianism) progressively deprived such disciplines of their foundational function, and they started to become forms of reflection over given scientific practices, either Cartesian, experimental, or Newtonian.
The Second Day of the Renaissance: Timothy Williams
Science and the Second Renaissance of Europe: A. Danzin
Timothy Williams was selected by The Observer as one of the ´´10 Best Modern European Crime Writers´´ for his series featuring Northern Italian police detective Piero Trotti. Now, 20 years after his last investigation, Trotti returns! After decades as a commissario in his city on the River Po, Piero Trotti has retired. But his newfound peace is brief. An old friend calls him to Siena to give him urgent news: a known hit man has returned to Italy to kill Trotti. The former inspector must admit that he isn´t entirely undeserving, as his mistaken accusations and failed gambles have cost innocent lives in the course of his investigations. Though Trotti carries the burden of these deaths with him each day, someone else has appeared to enact his own, long-awaited retribution. Traveling across Italy to escape his pursuer, Trotti revisits his own past and searches for clues to the cold-case murder of Valerio Gracchi, a leftist radical who became a national media sensation. But even the right answers may not save Trotti and his loved ones. 1. Language: English. Narrator: Tim Gerard Reynolds. Audio sample: http://samples.audible.de/bk/reco/010130/bk_reco_010130_sample.mp3. Digital audiobook in aax.