Humes ´´Enquiry´´ gehört zu den wichtigsten Werken des großen schottischen Philosophen und ist einer der Klassiker der Philosophiegeschichte: Kant wurde nach seiner eigenen Aussage von diesem Werk aus seinem ´´dogmatischen Schlummer´´ geweckt und zu seiner kritischen Philosophie angeregt. In 12 Essays untersucht Hume verschiedenste Themen, die auch heute von Interesse sind, etwa Kausalität, den Skeptizismus, die Frage, ob wir frei oder determiniert sind oder ob es Wunder (bzw. letztlich: Religion) geben kann. Die zweisprachige Ausgabe gibt die vollständig durchgesehene klassische Übersetzung von Herbert Herring wieder und führt in Kommentar und Nachwort auf den neuesten Stand der Forschung.
One cannot overestimate the contribution of the work of the Spanish Dominican Francisco de Vitoria (1483-1546) for the understanding and interpretation of the theology and philosophy of the Early Modern era. Vitoria´s main point of reference was the ´Summa Theologiae´ of Thomas Aquinas, whose analysis of ethical, juridical, and political questions (with reference to Aristotle´s philosophy) formed the basis for Vitoria´s broad discussion of problems we also face today. The treatise ´De lege´ (´About the Law´) explains the rationality of natural law, encourages the emancipation of civil law from ecclesiastical law, and calls for the submission also of the legislator to the law as well as the principle of publicness. These are all elements of a doctrine which has been fundamental for several generations of theologians, jurists, and philosophers.
John Locke: Versuch über den menschlichen Verstand. Die vier Teile in einem Buch Die Ausgabe enthält alle vier Bücher der 1690 erschienen ersten vollständigen Ausgabe. Erstdruck unter dem Titel ´´An essay concerning human understanding´´, London 1690. Erst deutsche Übersetzung durch H. E. Poleyen, Altenburg 1757. Der Text folgt der Übersetzung durch Julius Heinrich von Kirchmann von 1872/73. Inhaltsverzeichnis Versuch über den menschlichen Verstand Widmung Ein Brief an den Leser Erstes Buch. Ueber angeborne Begriffe Zweites Buch. Von den Vorstellungen Drittes Buch. Ueber die Worte Viertes Buch. Ueber Wissen und Meinen Neuausgabe mit einer Biographie des Autors. Herausgegeben von Karl-Maria Guth. Berlin 2016. Textgrundlage sind die Ausgaben: John Locke: Versuch über den menschlichen Verstand. In vier Büchern. Übersetzt und erläutert von J. H. von Kirchmann, Berlin: L. Heimann, 1872 (Philosophische Bibliothek, Bd. 51). Die Paginierung obiger Ausgaben wird in dieser Neuausgabe als Marginalie zeilengenau mitgeführt. Umschlaggestaltung von Thomas Schultz-Overhage. Gesetzt aus der Minion Pro, 11 pt.
The essays offer a unified and comprehensive view of 17th century mathematical and metaphysical disputes overstatus of infinitesimals, particularly the question whether they were real or mere fictions. Leibniz´s development of the calculus and his understanding of its metaphysical foundation are taken as both a point of departure and a frame of reference for the 17th century discussions of infinitesimals, that involved Hobbes, Wallis, Newton, Bernoulli, Hermann, and Nieuwentijt. Although the calculus was undoubtedly successful in mathematical practice, it remained controversial because its procedures seemed to lack an adequate metaphysical or methodological justification. The topic is also of philosophical interest, because Leibniz freely employed the language of infinitesimal quantities in the foundations of his dynamics and theory of forces. Thus, philosophical disputes over the Leibnizian science of bodies naturally involve questions about the nature of infinitesimals. The volume also includes newly discovered Leibnizian marginalia in the mathematical writings of Hobbes.
Italian Renaissance Art:Understanding its Meaning Christiane L. Joost-Gaugier
The effects of the Italian Renaissance are still with us today, from the incomparable paintings of Leonardo da Vinci to the immortal writings of Petrarch and Machiavelli. But why was there such an artistic, cultural, and intellectual explosion in Italy at the start of the 14th century? Why did it occur in Italy? And why in certain Italian city-states such as Florence? Professor Bartlett probes these questions and more in 36 dynamic lectures. This is your opportunity to appreciate the results of the Italian Renaissance and gain an understanding of the underlying social, political, and economic forces that made such exceptional art and culture possible. At the heart of Renaissance Italy were the city-states, home to the money, intellect, and talent needed for the growth of Renaissance culture. You´ll look at the Republic of Florence, as well as other city-states that, thanks to geographical and historical circumstances, had much different political and social structures. This course contains a wealth of details that will give you a feel and appreciation for the Italian Renaissance - its contributions to history, the ways it was similar and dissimilar to our times, and how the people of the time, both famous and ordinary, experienced it. You´ll come away surprised by how much of our modern life was made possible by the Renaissance. Our concept of participatory government, our belief in the value of competition, our philosophy of the content and purpose of education, even our notions of love all have roots in the Renaissance period. Its loftiest ideals - the importance of the individual, the value of human dignity and potential, and the promotion of freedom - are ones we embrace as our own. PLEASE NOTE: When you purchase this title, the accompanying reference material will be available in your Library section along with the audio. 1. Language: English. Narrator: Kenneth R. Bartlett. Audio sample: http://samples.audible.de/bk/tcco/000168/bk_tcco_000168_sample.mp3. Digital audiobook in aax.
If ever a catharsis in Western European Civilization occurred, it had to have been the period we refer to as the Renaissance. After a thousand years of theocracy, manorialism, feudalism, and narrow economic development, Europe was ripe for change. She got it with a vengeance. The prime mover in this momentous event was a rapid economic transformation which got underway in the 12th century. By 1350, European trade had finally recovered and attained the economic levels reached at the height of ancient Roman prosperity during the time of Emperor Antoninus Pius. But Europe was about to go far beyond even that. In the rush to escape the hardships and restrictions of manorial life, thousands abandoned the rural feudal domains and crowded into growing towns and cities. Concomitantly, the land owning aristocracy and church were left reeling. With money and its attendant political power now flowing into urban centers, and into the hands of merchant princes, the social changes that followed were bound to be profound. Historian Wallace K. Ferguson spends the entire first chapter just in bringing his listeners to an understanding of the changes wrought in the economic, social, and political spheres during the late Middle Ages. For it is only by going back to the period preceding the Renaissance that any of the events, with which we are familiar, will make sense. How did people respond to these chaotic social and economic changes? Why did the Church break apart under the pressure? Professor Ferguson provides the essential information we need in order to understand the dynamic Renaissance society that emerged, first in Italy, and later in Northern Europe. It was a remarkable transmutation whose legacy of brilliant works of art, architecture, literature, and scientific inquiry were to result in the mind expanding epochs that were to follow, and whose works continue to enrich the lives of millions right up to the present day. 1. Language: English. Narrator: Charlton Griffin. Audio sample: http://samples.audible.de/bk/acon/000057/bk_acon_000057_sample.mp3. Digital audiobook in aax.