One cannot overestimate the contribution of the work of the Spanish Dominican Francisco de Vitoria (1483-1546) for the understanding and interpretation of the theology and philosophy of the Early Modern era. Vitoria´s main point of reference was the ´Summa Theologiae´ of Thomas Aquinas, whose analysis of ethical, juridical, and political questions (with reference to Aristotle´s philosophy) formed the basis for Vitoria´s broad discussion of problems we also face today. The treatise ´De lege´ (´About the Law´) explains the rationality of natural law, encourages the emancipation of civil law from ecclesiastical law, and calls for the submission also of the legislator to the law as well as the principle of publicness. These are all elements of a doctrine which has been fundamental for several generations of theologians, jurists, and philosophers.
A lively and fascinating narrative history about the birth of the modern world. Beginning in the heady days just after the First Crusade, this volume - the third in the series that began with The History of the Ancient World and The History of the Medieval World - chronicles the contradictions of a world in transition. Popes continue to preach crusade, but the hope of a Christian empire comes to a bloody end at the walls of Constantinople. Aristotelian logic and Greek rationality blossom while the Inquisition gathers strength. As kings and emperors continue to insist on their divine rights, ordinary people all over the world seize power: the lingayats of India, the Jacquerie of France, the Red Turbans of China, and the peasants of England. New threats appear, as the Ottomans emerge from a tiny Turkish village and the Mongols ride out of the East to set the world on fire. New currencies are forged, new weapons invented, and world-changing catastrophes alter the landscape: the Little Ice Age and the Great Famine kill millions; the Black Death, millions more. In the chaos of these epoch-making events, our own world begins to take shape. Impressively researched and brilliantly told, The History of the Renaissance World offers not just the names, dates, and facts but the memorable characters who illuminate the years between 1100 and 1453 - years that marked a sea change in mankind´s perception of the world. 1. Language: English. Narrator: John Lee. Audio sample: http://samples.audible.de/bk/adbl/014068/bk_adbl_014068_sample.mp3. Digital audiobook in aax.
Michel de Montaigne, one of the foremost writers of the French Renaissance and the originator of the genre of the essay, wrote on subjects ranging from friendship to imagination, from language to conscience. This collection includes 22 of Montaigne´s essays, including ´´Of Prognostications,´´ ´´Of the Custom of Wearing Clothes,´´ ´´Of Pedantry,´´ and ´´Of Friendship.´´ Throughout Montaigne´s writing, he approaches his subject matter with rationality and skepticism, constantly searching for truth and inquiring into the nature of the human character. Montaigne´s essays have been widely read since their first publication by such great writers as Shakespeare and Ralph Waldo Emerson and continue to resonate for modern audiences. This edition is the translation by Charles Cotton. 1. Language: English. Narrator: Clive Chafer. Audio sample: http://samples.audible.de/bk/tant/001995/bk_tant_001995_sample.mp3. Digital audiobook in aax.
During the Sixties and Seventies of the last century, the word ´utopia´ acquired a positive connotation spurred on by the sudden emergence of the third world, the Marxist liberation movements and the decolonization of Africa and Asia, in so far as these processes were interpreted in Marxist terms and as a moment of the historical class struggle that would lead humanity to the final achievement of communism and the entirely planned society, whose rationality would represent the attainment of paradise in this world. After the fall of the Soviet Union and the collapse of most of the totalitarian regimes, the employment of the term ´utopia´ as an ideological weapon by the Marxist movement could not maintain its intensity, and as a consequence there was a relative decline of interest in the subject. Utopia continues to survive in the current ideology of democracy, which postulates a final universal homogenous state as the goal of the evolution of human society and of conflicts and history. However, the significance of utopianism for the contemporary political thought could not be wholly understood without the consideration of its permanence in the history of western political thought, and especially of its Greek origins in Plato. The papers included in this volume are devoted to the analysis of his political works, especially the Republic and the Laws and its reception in the Hellenistic age and in the Renaissance.